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[modifier] Vocabulary

English French
tax form rapport d'impôt
tax return retour d'impôt
involve impliquer
chances are slim faible (chance)
upheavals bouleversements
parking lot stationnement
ergonomic desk bureau qui se lève
to host recevoir à la maison
request solliciter
in the era à l'ère
reduce diminuer
most of la plupart de
wrestle débattre (intérieurement)
undermine miner/saper
aftermath conséquences, résultats
breakdown lister
put away ranger
include incorporer
entail entraîner (conséquences)
honing aiguiser
flippant cavalier
blatantly avec insolence
Risky Risqué
Fall out Répercussions
Noticeable prononcé
Division Direction
downright Carrément
Commitment engagement
Climate atmosphère
clarify préciser
hinder gêner, entraver
mooted peu de valeur
inconvenience désagrément
dread redouter
Strive S'efforcer
Handle Endurer

[modifier] Expressions

English French / Explanation
a case in point par exemple
if you have the possibilty of doing du moment où tu peux...
it might do the job ça peut faire le travail
cool headed avec sang froid
as you may know comme tu sais
everything from soup to nuts toute, du début à la fin
thorny problem problème épineux
He his in charge of il a la responsabilité de
on his own de lui-même
Fill out a form remplir un formulaire
get under your skin me tapper sur les nerfs
Nature abhors a vacuum la nature a horreur du vide
pulling his weight Faire sa part
cog in the machine un rouage dans la machine
ebb and flow flux et reflux
spawn a devil child donner naissance à un problème
go through the pecking order monter les échelons hierarchique
add a string to his bow ajouter une corde à son arc
a glimpse OF what ... un aperçu
at a glance En un coup d'œil
Knee-jerk reaction réaction impulsive
At the outset at the beginning
As far as I am concerned De mon côté [...]
to factor in prendre en compte
In respect to Transition to one question from another
Get by Se débrouiller, joindre le deux bouts
Issue invoice Émettre une facture
taking a toll on have a negative impact
be borne by être assumé par
Getting up to speed se rattraper
Make do S'arranger avec ce qu'on a
Err on the side of caution To be especially careful rather than making a mistake
Poorly done Mal fait

[modifier] To learn

  • Every/each/whoever: verbs are singular
  • any/people are plurals
  • Adjectives are never pluralized

[modifier] Phrase verbs

  • Bring up: To mention something. (Mark was sick and had to miss the party, so please don't bring it up, I don't want him to feel bad for missing it)
  • Bring on: To cause something to happen, usually something negative. His lung cancer was brought on by years of smoking.
  • Call on: This can mean either to visit someone , or to use someone's or something's knowledge. I'll call on you this evening to see how you're feeling.
  • Call off: To cancel something. This picnic was called off because of the rain.
  • Catch up: to improve in order to reach the same standard or rate as someone or something. You have a lot of work to do - do you think you'll be able to catch up by Friday?.
  • Catch up on: When I return after my holiday, I'll have a lot of work to catch up on
  • Catch up (with): Meet someone after a period of time and find out what they have been doing. I was able to catch up with Danielle at the conference.
  • Come up (with something) : To think of an idea. I came up with this idea for a TV show about a woman living with her best friend and daughter. I call it 'Two and a Half Women'.
  • End up at: to finally be in a particular place or situation. They're travelling across Europe by train and are planning to end up' in Moscow.

[modifier] Gerunds

Expressions followed by a verb ends in -ing:

  • A key to ...
  • Prevent me from ...
  • Difficulty ... (active verb)
  • It's no use ...
  • There is no point ...
  • It's (not) worth ...
  • Have difficulty/trouble ...
  • A waste of money/time ...
  • Spend/waste time ...
  • Go sport-ing (go swimming)
  • I am looking forward to ...

I am used/accustomed to -ing:

  • I am used to driving on the right;
  • I had to get used to driving on the left lane;

[modifier] About / for / from / in / of / to / on / at

[modifier] To learn

  • Attended a conference
  • Ask FOR
  • Go TO
  • Participating IN
  • Explain TO me
  • The closer you get TO, the farther you get FROM
  • Migrate TO
  • Contributing TO
  • ON the whole
  • Related TO


At:

  • You end up AT the Club Soda

With:

  • You integrate the data with someone else data

On:

  • To take on

About:

  • excited
  • worried
  • complain
  • dream
  • talk
  • think

For:

  • apologized
  • blame someone
  • forgive someone
  • have an excuse
  • have a reason
  • be responsible
  • thank someone
  • room for

From:

  • keep someone
  • prevent someone
  • prohibit someone
  • stop someone
  • be tired

In:

  • be interested
  • believe
  • participate
  • succeed

Of:

  • be accused
  • be capable
  • be guilty
  • instead
  • take advantage
  • take care
  • be tired
  • complain
  • dream
  • talk
  • think

To:

  • explain
  • be accustomed
  • in addition
  • be committed
  • be devoted
  • look forward
  • object
  • be opposed
  • be used

[modifier] Tenses

[modifier] Conditionnal

To talk about real (possible) or unreal (imaginary, contrary to fact or hypothetical) situations. Conditional clauses are used to refer to the present, past and future.

Conditionals have two clauses: the subordinate clause and the main clause. The verb tenses you choose in these clauses indicate whether they are real or unreal and which time you are referring to. The subordinate clause often begins with if.

Type Subordinate Clause Main Clause Example
present real if + simple present simple present If I have time, I get the work done.
future real if + simple present will + base form If I have time, I will get the work done.
present or
future unreal
If + simple past would + base form If I had time, I would get the work done.

Even if I had time, I wouln't get the work done.

past unreal if + past perfect would have + past participle If I had had time, I would have gotten the work done.

f the subordinate clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, it is followed by a comma. If the main clause comes at the beginning, there is no comma.

[modifier] Present simple

  • Permanent situation (She works in a bank)
  • Habits (I play tennis every Tuesday)
    • Use with Twice a month, every Tuesday, often, sometimes
  • Generally true (The sun rises in the east)
  • Future timetable (Our train leaves at 11 am)
    • Use with this evening, at 11 am, tomorrow
  • Future after when, until, ... (I won't go out until it stops raining)
    • Use with when, until, as soon as, after, before

[modifier] Present continuous/progressive tense

Formed with to be and the gerunds

  • Happening now (Julie is sleeping at the moment)
    • Use with now, at the moment, currently
  • Temporary situation (I'm staying with a friend for a few days)
    • Use with at the moment, these days, for a few days
  • Annoying habits (You always loosing your keys!)
    • Use with always, never, constantly
  • Definite future plans (I'm meeting my father later)
    • Use with tonight, later, this weekend
  • Changing situation (The weather is improving)
    • Use with little by little, gradually


[modifier] Wish and Hope

  • A wish about the past uses the past perfect.
  • For a future wish, use would not will.
  • Wish is used for unlikely or impossible situations.

[modifier] ORE

  • Are all empires destined to crumble? (use your general knowledge and the reading; think about empires in all senses of the word – business, political etc)
    • Opinion: This question is of vivid actuality. I think that every empire crumbles, with some heritage that is passed to the system succeeding the empire:
    • Reason(s): Nothing can last forever. It is either destroyed or transformed.
    • Example(s): To first example coming to mind is democraty after Greek empire. Another example is the military organisation after the Roman empire. And lastly, a lesser known example is the lack of marine in Chinese after Hongxi Emperor burn down the chinese fleet in 1424
  • Conclusion: all in all, every system, political or not, must be thoughts to be able to transform and adapt to the situation, so they can last and avoid transitionnal shocks.
  • Are you an execution/operation or visionary type CEO in your Skycad business?

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